Abstract
A REVIEW ON DEPRESSION (AFFECTIVE DISORDER)

*Laxmi Goswami, N.V. Satheesh Madhav and Kumud Upadhyaya

ABSTRACT

Depression is a devastating and prevalent disease, with profound effects on neural structure and function. It is reported as one of the most common psychiatric disorder in outpatient clinic population and in subjects seen in various medical and surgical setting. Different symptoms of depression observed for different age group person and severity of symptoms vary with individual. Single or combination of factors may be responsible for promoting depression. Several theories of depression do exist, including modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission, alterations in neuroplasticity, and relation of hippocampus with depression are briefly mentioned in the review. Diagnosis is generally based on the symptom criteria spelled out in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Several types of interventions have been shown to be efficacious in treating depression. The antidepressant medications are relatively safe and work for many patients. About half of all patients will respond to a given medication, and many of those who do not will respond to some other agent or to a combination of medications. Psychotherapies and somatic treatment also available for treatment of depression. Electro-convulsive therapy is particularly effective for the most severe and resistant depressions. Cognitive behaviour therapy also appears to be efficacious in treating depression, and recent studies suggest that it can work for even severe depressions in the hands of experienced therapists. Treatment combining Interpersonal therapy with medication retains the quick results of pharmacotherapy and boosting response in patients who are otherwise more difficult to treat.

Keywords: Depression, Monoamine, Neuroplasticity, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy.


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