Jaladi Himaja, Nancy Grace Daniel*, Linta Kurian and Battu Rakesh


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an endocrinological and/or metabolic disorder with an accumulative global occurrence and incidence. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic-cum-vascular syndrome of diverse etiologies characterised by prolonged hyperglycaemia with resultant disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism with subsequent defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Recent guidelines for treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are based on glycaemic standards derived from medical specialty data; nonetheless, the course of the disease, from prediabetes to end-stage complications, is not the similar in all patients. Microvascular complications, comprising nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy, are intensely related to haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). However, vascular complications may headway in patients who have HbA1c <7.0% and may appear even in undiagnosed patients owing to transitory increases in plasma glucose concentrations. Concomitant atherosclerosis and occult macro vascular disease may follow a hastened course in type 2 diabetes. Managing hyperglycaemia in the advanced stages of type 2 diabetes does not appear to be associated with value-added cardiovascular outcomes. The glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity that may precede sustained hyperglycaemia and β-cell dysfunction are initial, reversible pathophysiologic events. This suggests that quick management may modify the course of hyperglycaemia and avert or delay long-term complications. The challenge remains to identify patients with early type 2 diabetes who are at risk for hasty progression of β-cell failure and early development of microvascular complications. Objective: To assess the prevalence and complications of type-II diabetes mellitus. Study Design: A prospective observational study was carried out in the General Medicine Department, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital, Mandya, Karnataka, using a well-designed patient data collection form. Results: Out of 121 diabetic patients studied 56.20% were males, 43.80% were females. Most of the patients with diabetes fall in the age group of 61-70 years. Among the complications developed macrovascular complications (59%) were having more prevalence rate than microvascular complications (22%). Conclusion: Prevalence of DM was more in males than in females and macro vascular complications were having more prevalence rate than micro vascular complications.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, Multimorbidity, Cardiovascular Events and sedentary lifestyle.

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