Abstract
TOXICOKINETICS OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (CCL4) EXPOSURE ON HEPATORENAL SYSTEM

Barsha Dassarma, Saptadip Samanta* and Dilip K. Nandi

ABSTRACT

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), organic compound and most potent hepatotoxin, is able to create successful hepatorenal dysfunction in experimental animals. It shows a rapid absorption, distribution and slow elimination, followed by ingestion through different routes. Acute exposure to CCl4 (<6.4 mg/m3) causes tissue damage by the generation of free radicals (trichloromethyl radical) which directly able to bind with the lipid molecules of the hepatic cell membrane and thus increases the rate of lipid peroxidation. CCl4 also posses the ability to decrease the fluidity of the lipid bilayers of plasma membrane in hepatic cells and this way normal, healthy liver became fibrotic, patchy one; which leads to renal dysfunction accompanied with hepatic damage. Nephritis, nephrosis followed by renal dysfunction also may result due to CCl4 intoxication. Development of renal ascites take place in accompanies with congestion, edema, hypertension and acidosis. This review concludes that like many environmental toxins, CCl4 causes severe hepatic damage which leads to renal toxicity and impairment of renal system. This kind of hepatorenal dysfunction may be combated by raising antioxidant level of exposed cells.

Keywords: Carbon tetrachloride, hepatorenal dysfunction, ROS generation.


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