Abstract
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUOEUS EXTRACT AND ITS FRACTIONS, 80% METHANOL EXTRACT, FLAVONOIDS AND POLYSACCHARIDES FROM MORINDA MORINDOIDES (BAKER) MILNE-REDHEAD (RUBIACEAE) LEAVES IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

*Cimanga K. R., Nzinga, Vlietinck A.J. and Pieters L.

ABSTRACT

The present investigation described for the first time the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities of aqueous and 80% methanol extracts, fractions, flavonoids and polysaccharides as well as antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract from Morinda morindoides leaves in animal model. After study, results revealed that in hypoglycemic test on normoglycemic Wistar rats, Glibenclamide used as reference product produced signification lowering of treated normoglycemic rats glucose level (BGL) to 77.6±0.3 mg/dl. On the other hand, at the highest oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, aqueous and 80% methanol extracts, different soluble fractions including chloroform ethylacetate, n-butanol and residual aqueous phase and polysaccharides significantly brought back the BGL of treated normoglycemic rats to values 78.0±0.3 to 83±0.1 compared to untreated normoglycenic rats with 87.5±0.3 mg/dl after 180 minutes of observation. Flavonoids quercetin, rutin, quercetrin, kaempferol and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside produced reductions of treated normoglycemic BGL from 82.1±0.2 to 83.6±0.2 mg/dl compared to negative control with 87.0±0.3 mg/dl. Results from the antidiabetic test conducted for 180 minutes of observation indicated that Glibenclamide brought back the of treated diabetic rats glycemia level to 76.6±0.1 mg/dl. In the same time, samples of Morinda morindoides including extracts, soluble fractions and polysaccharides administered at the highest oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight caused significant lowering of treated diabetic rats glycemia levels to values from 130.6±0.1 to 149.8±0.3 mg/dl compared to negative control having glycemia level of 202.7±0.3 mg/dl. Flavonoids showed percentage reductions of treated diabetic glycemia from 62.48 to 71%. But, after 28 days of treatment of diabetic rats twice per day with the same oral doses, Glibenclamide caused significant lowering treated diabetic glycemia level to 84.6±0.3 mg/dl on Day-28. On the same day, at the highest oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, aqueous and 80% methanol soluble fractions and polysaccharides significantly brought back treated diabetic glycemia levels to values from 88.3±0.3 to 98.5±02 mg/dl < 100 mg/dl compared to untreated diabetic rats presenting a value of 252.3±0.3 mg/dl. In all cases, significant difference was observed (p < 0.05). In antihyperglycemic test, aqueous extract was found to significantly reduce treated hyperglycemic animals BGL to 88.6±0.3 mg/dl compared to untreated hyperglycemic rats with BGL of 164.5±0.3 mg/dl after 180 minutes of observation. These obtained results indicated that extracts, fractions and polysaccharides exhibited good hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities at different degrees and had Glibenclamide like-effects, in addition to the antihyperhycemic effect showed by aqueous extract in animal model. These reported results can support and justify the use of M. morindoides leaves to treat diabetes type II in traditional medicine in several African countries where it known the same medical purpose.

Keywords: Morinda morindoides, leaves, extracts, fractions, polysaccharides, hypoglycemic, antidiabetic and antihyperglycemic activities.


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