Abstract
A STUDY ON DIABETES IS A PROGRESSIVE DISORDER THAT LEADS TO SERIOUS COMPLICATIONS

Zoha Shaik*, Syeda Maryam Fatima, Mohd. Ayaz Ali, Fatima Suraiya, Juveria Sultana, Amatus Saboor, Ruksar Fatima and Shyma Faheem

ABSTRACT

Introductions: Diabetes is a chronic heterogenous metabolic disorder that effects the way the body processes blood sugars. Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome known as SYNDROME X or INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROME. This is a long term or chronic condition that decreases the glucose metabolism which leads to increased glucose circulating in the blood stream eventually results in high blood glucose levels. These increased levels lead to various disorders of the circulatory, nervous and immune systems. Diabetes is a progressive disorder that leads to serious complications, which are associated with increased costs to the family, community, and healthcare system. Uncontrolled diabetes leads to increased risk of vascular disease and much of the burden of type 2 diabetes is caused by macrovascular (cardiovascular (CV), cerebrovascular, and peripheral artery disease) and microvascular (diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) complications. Aim: To determine the prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and their risk factors. Methods: This is a Cross sectional study design. This is an observational study conducted over a period of 6 months from November 2021 to April 2022 at Lalitha super speciality hospital in an in- patient department. The individuals who met the inclusion criteria are taken into consideration. The patients are included according to their interests and willingness in order to carry out the study. The study was conducted in LAITHA SUPER SPECIALITY HOSPITALS [multi centred hospital]. The study will be carried out for a period of 6 months. Results: The results of this study of prevalence of microvascular and Macrovascular complications of Type-2 diabetes was males were more prone to the diabetes mellitus, 61-70 is the most common age group, duration of diabetes for developing complications in the most was1-5yrs, Risk factors that aggravate the complication prevalence include hypertension, and also most of them didn’t have any risk factors yet developed complications which may be due to several factors i.e., diet, diabetic control. Majority of the people that developed complications have good to fair diabetes control. Mostly developed complication was CAD in Macrovascular complication and neuropathy in microvascular complication. Conclusion: The conclusion of the study of prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications, macrovascular complications are more prevalent, in which cardiovascular disease has the highest incidence rate. There are many risk factors that influence the complication prevalence which include hypertension, obesity, alcohol, smoking and age, of which HTN seem to increase the prevalence or incidence of complications among the diabetic people.

Keywords: Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus, CAD, CVA, PVD, Microvascular, Macrovascular, Complications, Neuropathy, Nephropathy, Retinopathy, Hyperglycemia, Blood, Prevalence, Risk, Risk Factor, Incidence, Disease, Disorder.


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