Dr. Anjali Sharma*, Gurdeep Singh, Manjot Kaur, Dr. Dharmendra Kumar Yadav and Dr. Raj Narayan*


Background: In India, people frequently abuse legal substances like alcohol and tobacco, which pose serious risks for various illnesses. According to the NFHS-5 report, the prevalence of tobacco use among Punjab men has fallen over the last decade, from 33.8% (NFHS-3) to 19.2% (NFHS-4). Over the last decade, the prevalence of alcohol use among men in Punjab has declined from 43.4% (NFHS-3) to 34.0% (NFHS-4). When coupled, tobacco and alcohol abuse can lead to severe morbidity and mortality. Tobacco use raises the risk of a variety of chronic diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and respiratory issues. Similarly, drinking too much alcohol can lead to liver damage, cancer, and other health problems. Study Designs: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The NFHS-5 was a cross-sectional nationwide survey performed using a representative sample of Punjab's adult population aged 15 and up. Punjab is a state in northwest India that covers 50,362 square kilometres and has a population of 2,77,04,236. The research covered all men aged 15 and up, with a total of 3,296 participants. Results: The age groups with the highest prevalence were those aged 15 to 19 years (16.1%) and 25 to 29 years (14.7%). In terms of education, a significant proportion had never attended any formal schooling (10.1%), even though the vast majority had finished secondary school (66.7%). Bathinda has the highest alcohol consumption rate (43.10%), followed by Muktsar (39.90%) and Faridkot (38.70%). Males aged 20-44 years were more likely to consume tobacco products, whereas those aged 25-54 years were more likely to consume alcohol. Muslims were 85% less likely to use alcohol than Hindus, and individuals from the wealthiest socioeconomic level were less than half as likely to utilize tobacco products. Conclusion: In conclusion, the study on the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among males in Punjab has limitations, although providing useful information about the current situation. The study's key strengths are its cross-sectional methodology and targeted demographics, which provide insight into drug usage. Nonetheless, there are several limitations, such as the use of self-reported data, potential sample bias, and a superficial analysis of contextual aspects.

Keywords: Tobacco Consumption, Alcohol Consumption, Punjab, Male Population, NFHS.

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