Sura Hameed Mohamed, Ali Abdul Hussein S. AL-Janabi* and Atheer Hameid Odda


The application of nanotechnology in the synthesis of effective medicines that are used for the treatment of different infections is progressively taken attention by many studies in the present days. Replacement of the conventional forms of antifungals with a nanoparticle formula is the most successful application of nanotechnology. Metal nanoparticles that have been prepared from different metals such as silver, gold, zinc oxide, and iron in size of 10-100 nm are widely used either as antifungals or to enhance other conventional antifungals. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most effective type of metallic nanoparticles. Many other forms of nanoparticles, such as polymers and lipid-associated nanoparticles are also proven to have antifungal activities. Activities of metal nanoparticles show significant action on several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi. Some of these fungi have resistance to many conventional antifungals. Candida albicans and Aspergillus spp., which cause invasive fungal infection, revealed more susceptibility to metal nanoparticles, particularly to AgNP. Other positive properties of prepared nanoparticles are their low adverse effects with little toxicity to human tissues. Several mechanisms of action of AgNP have been proposed. Oxidation state with the releasing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as free radicals is the most acceptable mechanism. Further studies are always required to determine the specific mechanism and adverse effects of AgNP. Applications of AgNP with many conventional antifungals and their in vivo activities are also needed further studies.

Keywords: Aspergillus; Candida; Nanoparticle; Silver.

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