Dr. K. Yesupadam, Dr. Tgvrl Hanumanth Jyothsna MS (OBG) and *Dr. K.V.N. Geetha Devi


The placenta is a disc shaped compact mass of vascular tissue. It is like a flat circular disc with diameter of 15 – 20 cm. It weighs about 500 grams. The placenta is the only organ that develops from two different individuals that is foetus and mother. It presents two surfaces meternal and foetal. The meternal surface presents a smooth shining surface, at the center of which umbilical card is attached. Placenta along with umbelical cord act as a transport system between mother and foetus and is a foetometernal organ that sustains the developing fetus with in the uterine wall of mother up to complete development for 36 – 38 weeks of gestation. The placenta provide nutrition for the developing fetus and remove the foetal waste. Ultrasound examination of placenta is important part of obstetrical evaluation of pregnancy. Though it is a reproductive tissue, it functions as an endocrine gland. It acts not only a structure of Anchor and nutritive bridge, but as well as respiratory and endocrine organ. Study about the structure and anomalous developmental patterns of placenta is very important for gynecologists and practitioners. The study the abnormal types of placentae, the variations in the attachment of umbilical cord gives essential knowledge for practicing clinicians and gynecologists which is useful for understanding pathological pregnencies such as preeclampsia, Intrauterine growth restriction and Diabetes Mellitus. Material and Method: Forty separated human placentae were procured from Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Government General Hospital, Guntur Medical College Guntur. Kept them in 40% formaldehyde solution for hardening. The specimens numbered 1-40, Membranes cleared, observed the attachments of umbilical cord, meternal&foetal surfaces observed and anomalies noted. Results: According to attachment of umbilical cord (a) central attachment: (17), (b) paracentral attachment: (18), (c) Marginal attachment (Battle dore): (5). 2. According to Number of arteries and veins: The specimens with 2 umbelical arteries and 1 umbelical vein: (38). 2. Absence of one umbelical artery in 2 specimens. 3. Abnormal Placenta placenta succenturiata (1), Normal placentae: (38), Bilobed Placenta: (2). Conclusion: The present study showing the central attachment of umbilical cord in 17 specimens out of 40 = 42.5%; paracentral attachment in 18 specimens out of 40 i.e., 45%; Marginal attachment in 5 specimens out of 40 i.e, 12.5%. The umbilical arteries are 2 in number in 38 specimens = 95%. The single umbilical artery was in 2 specimens = 5% only. Regarding abnormal placentae: 1 specimens was placenta succerturiata = 2.5%, 2 specimens were Bidiscoidal and it is 5%.

Keywords: Placenta, Anomalies, Disc Shape, Umbelical artery & Umbelical vein.

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