Abstract
MULTIPURPOSE INORGANIC MINERAL ACIDS AND THEIR R-PHRASE AND S-PHRASE VALUES

*Prof. Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen

ABSTRACT

A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is an acid derived from one or more inorganic compounds. All mineral acids form hydrogen ions and the conjugate base ions when dissolved in water. Commonly used mineral acids are sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid (they are also known as bench acids). These mineral acids range from acids of great strength (sulfuric acid) to very weak (boric acid). These have tendency to be very soluble in water and insoluble in organic solvents. These are used in many sectors of the chemical industry as feed stocks for the synthesis of other chemicals, both organic and inorganic. Large quantities of these acids – especially sulfuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid – are manufactured for commercial use in large plants. These acids are also used directly for their corrosive properties. For example, a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid is used for removing the deposits from the inside of boilers, with precautions taken to prevent the corrosion of the boiler by the acid. This process is known as descaling. Examples of mineral acids: Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Nitric acid (HNO3), Phosphoric acid (H3PO4), Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), Boric acid (H3BO3), Hydrofluoric acid (HF), Hydrobromic acid (HBr), Perchloric acid (HClO4) and Hydroiodic acid (HI).

Keywords: R-phrases, S-phrases, HCl, HNO3, H3PO4, H2SO4, H3BO3, HF, HBr, HClO4, HI, Irritant, Corrosive, Fuming, Aqua Regia, Oleum, RFNA, IRFNA, WFNA, S-Stoff, SV-Stoff, Vitriol.


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