Abstract
DETERMINATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES (ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIPROLIFERATIVE) AND METABOLITE ANALYSIS OF SOME LICHEN SPECIES FROM TURKEY

Isa Tas, Arzu Birinci Yildirim, Gulsah Cobanoglu Ozyigitoglu, Muhsine Z. Yavuz, Arzu Ucar Turker*

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of 3 different lichens species (Anaptychia ciliaris, Bryoria capillaris and Cetraria islandica) and their chemical constituents. Lichen species were collected from different provinces of Bolu, Turkey, and extracted with methanol and acetone. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion method against 10 pathogenic bacteria. Antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH method. Total phenol and flavonoid were determined by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) colorimetric method, respectively. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated against MCF-7 (Human breast adenocarcinoma) and HepG2/C3A (Human hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The chemical constituents of selected lichens were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Diode Array (HPLC-DAD) via chosen five standards (usnic acid, atranorin, stictic acid, evernic acid and fumarprotocetraric acid).The most effective antibacterial agent was acetone extract of C. islandica with inhibition values ranging from 20.3-28.0 mm against Gram-positive bacteria. B. capillaris exhibited broad spectrum of antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. B. capillaris had the highest free radical scavenging activity at 100 μg/ml concentration (67.4%). Moreover, consistent relationship was observed among total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant effect of tested species. Strong antiproliferative activity was not observed with tested lichen species (IC50 value of >200 μg/ml). For HPLC analysis, acetone extracts had higher lichen acid content than methanol extracts. Aceton extract of B. capillaris was significant source of usnic acid and only C. islandica consisted of fumarprotocetraric acid. The present study showed that tested lichen species demonstrated an effective antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The results suggest that detected compounds can be possible agents for using pharmaceutical purposes.

Keywords: Anaptychia ciliaris, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiproliferative, Bryoria capillaris, Cetraria islandica, DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteau, Aluminum chloride colorimetric, HPLC.


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