Abstract
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PREVENTION AND CONTROL IN HEALTH CARE PRACTICE – A BRIEF REVIEW

M. S. Umashankar*, K. S. Lakshmi, A. Bharath Kumar and A. Porselvi

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance occurs when an antibiotic has lost its ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth and continue to multiply in the presence of therapeutic levels of an antibiotic. Resistance arises through one of three ways includes natural resistance in certain types of bacteria, genetic mutation, or by one species acquiring resistance from another. Resistance can appear spontaneously because of random mutations are more commonly following gradual buildup over time and because of misuse of antibiotics or antimicrobials. All classes of microbes develop resistance includes fungi develop antifungal resistance, viruses develop antiviral resistance, protozoa develop antiprotozoal resistance and bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. The prescriber having rights to prescribe the drug should closely adhere to appropriate right like the right patient, the right drug, the right dose, the right route and the right time. Any bacteria that acquire resistance genes, whether by spontaneous mutation or genetic exchange with other bacteria, have the ability to resist one or more antibiotics. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Each year in the United States, at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die each year as a direct result of these infections. Strengthening antibiotic policies, programmes and implementation of infection prevention and control measures in community will plays key role motivating the research community for development of new antibiotics, vaccines, diagnostics tools will shows the better progress in community.

Keywords: Antibiotics, vaccines, random mutations, genes, diagnostics, resistance.


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