Abstract
DECOLORIZATION OF DIFFERENT FOOD DYES BY 12 TYPES OF FUNGI AND TOXICITY EVALUATION AFTER FUNGAL TREATMENT

Shaileyee Das* and Biswajit Das

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of decolorization and detoxification of the food dyes Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow WS, Sunset Yellow FCF, Allura Red, Ponceau 4R, Carmoisine, Erythrosine, Amaranth, Brown HT, Brilliant Blue FCF, Patent Blue V, Indigo Carmine, Green S, Fast Green FCF, Black PN and the mixture of the all dyes (MXD) by 12 types of fungi (Irpex lacteus, Aspergillus species, Penicillium geastrivorus, Datronia sp., Myrothecium roridum , Polyporus arcularius , Fomitopsis feei , Pleurotus ostreatus , Trametes versicolor , Trametes hirsuta , fomes fomentarius , Ganoderma lucidum). The dye Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow WS, Sunset Yellow FCF, Allura Red, Ponceau 4R, Carmoisine, Erythrosine, Amaranthin liquid media decolorize totally after 5-days incubation, and the others Brown ht, brilliant blue fcf, patent blue v, indigo carmine, green s, fast green fcf, black pn the liquid media was 100% decolorized by penicillium geastrivorus, irpex lacteu, myrothecium roridum, polyporus arcularius within 8 days of incubation. initially the dye decolorization involved dye adsorption by the biomass followed by degradation. the acute toxicity after fungal treatment was monitored with the microcrustacean daphnia pulex and measured through effective Concentration 50% (EC50). Irpex lacteus, Aspergillus species, Penicillium geastrivorus, Datronia sp., Myrothecium roridum , Polyporus arcularius , Fomitopsis feei , Pleurotus ostreatus , Trametes versicolor , Trametes hirsuta , fomes fomentarius , Ganoderma lucidum all were reduced efficiently the toxicity of dyes Brilliant Blue FCF before the treatment were non toxic (EC50=> 100%) while the dye Brown HT was moderately acutely toxic (EC50=1-10%), and also Indigo carmine was minute acute toxic dye (EC50=10-100%). Except these three types of dyes , all dyes were acute toxic (EC50=<1%). Despite of MXD being constituted also by the toxic dyes, the low toxicity of the mixture is probably due to fact that they were in a low concentration (33.3 mg L-1). After the fungal treatment, 12 types of fungi efficiently reduced the toxicity of mixed dye, the 24h-EC50 value was increased from 10.93% (minor acutely toxic) to 40 – 52.3% (minor acutely toxic). Thus, these 12 types fungi were efficient to decolorize different food dyes and the mixture of them with a significant reduction of their toxicity. In addition this investigation also demonstrated the need of toxicological assays associated to decolorizatio experiments.

Keywords: Fungi, Food Dyes, Decolorization, Detoxification.


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