P. V. V. Satish, D. Santha Kumari and K. Sunita*


The present study aimed to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plant Aerva lanata against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain and cytotoxicity against THP-1 cell line. The plant Aerva lanata was collected from Acharya Nagarjuna University Campus, Nagarjunanagar, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Crude extracts from dried leaves, stem and flower of Aerva lanata was prepared through soxhlet extraction using methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform sequentially. These extracts were tested in vitro against laboratory adopted P. falciparum 3D7 strain. The crude extracts were also tested for their cytotoxicity against THP-1 cell line. The phytochemical screenings were also conducted with standard methods. The IC50 values of methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extract of leaves, stem and flowers of A. lanata showed a range (IC50 =15.17 μg/mL - 77.27 μg/mL) of inhibitory concentrations against CQ-sensitive P. falciparum strain. The methanol extract of flower (22.60 μg/mL) and ethyl acetate extract of leaves (15.17 μg/mL), flower (48.87 μg/mL) showed good antimalarial activity and were significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. Among these extracts, the ethyl acetate extract of leaves of A. lanata showed excellent antimalarial activity (IC50 = 15.17 μg/mL). The methanol and ethyl acetate extract of stem, chloroform extract of leaves showed IC50 values between 50-100 μg/mL. The methanol extract of leaves and chloroform extract of stem and flower shown inactive antimalarial activity with IC50 values >100 μg/mL. All the extracts were non-toxic to THP-1 cells. The phytochemical screening has revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, carbohydrates, phenols, saponins, phlobatannins and steroids. It is concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of leaf of A. lanata is potent for the development of antimalarial drugs.

Keywords: Aerva lanata, antiplasmodial activity, IC50, cytotoxic activity, selectivity index.

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