Lubna*, Mohd Naushad and F. S. Sherani


Unani medicine is a unique system of medicine but its basic principles are mostly based on observation that needs scientific validation. The seven physiological factors are needed to be scientifically validated. Among these seven factors, the most controversial topic is the temperament. Although it is the most studied topic and a lot of work & research studies has been done since 25 years and still to be continue. But still we are lagging behind because the work done is scattered and not compiled at one place. Normal temperament of an individual is a condition in which he survives comfortably with all the symptoms of healthy life. For a particular species the temperament is specific, lying in a particular range of maximum to minimum limit within which the temperament for all members of that species is confined. Temperament forms the basis of pathology, diagnosis and treatment. Thus it is necessary to ascertain some parameters to diagnose the human temperament. The Unani physicians have mentioned various parameters for assessment of temperament. However the most appropriate were given by ibn-e-sina which are collectively known as Ajnas-e-Ashra (ten parameters). A number of studies have been done on almost each parameter for determination of temperament which validates the Unani concept that there is a relationship between Ajnas-e-Ashra and Temperament of individuals. The first category in Ajnas-e-Ashra is Touch (Malmas) on which two to three research studies has been done, second one is Muscle and Fat(Laham-wa-Shaham) on which four studies has been done and so on. Purpose of this paper is to amalgamate all the researches at one place which has been done to assess the temperament through various methods. Now the need of hour is to make use of these studies and patent those instruments which have been made to assess the temperament through these studies and use these instruments and techniques directly for assessment of temperament instead of Ajnas-e-Ashra. Further research studies related to this topic will be discussed in full length paper.

Keywords: Temperament, Ajnas-e-Ashra, Malmas, Laham-wa-Shaham.

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