Abstract
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AS CAUSATIVE AGENTS FOR ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

Neelkamal, Radha Rathee*, Minakshi Vashist, Ashok Kumar.

ABSTRACT

The etiology of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) remain uncertain, although some doctors believe that ALL develop from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is the most frequent malignancy affecting children, constituting about 30% of all childhood cancers. The causes of most pediatric acute leukemia are unknown and likely to involve an interaction between the environment and hematopoietic development. Pathogenesis of leukemia is not clearly understood, but immature, nonfunctioning WBCs appear to accumulate first in the tissue where they originate (lymphocytes in lymph tissue, granulocytes in bone marrow). These immature WBCs then spill into the bloodstream and from there infiltrate other tissues, eventually causing organ malfunction because of encroachment or hemorrhage. The occurrence of pediatric leukemia has been linked to several environmental, maternal, and paternal characteristics and to exposure to various biological, physical, and chemical factors. The risk of developing cancer is strongly influenced by genetically determined difference. Recent molecular epidemiologic research provides compelling evidence that environmental factors are major contributors to human carcinogenesis. Therefore these agents may influence individual susceptibility to cancer. Children are vulnerable to environmental toxicants because of their greater relative exposure and immature metabolism.

Keywords: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, environmental factors, hematopoisis.


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