Mohammed Babiker Mohammed Elhassan Elsheikh, Nuha Eljaili Abubaker Mohammed, Mohammed Karrar Abd Alla Karrar, Elhaj Noureldien Mohammed Babiker, Halah AbdulRahman Mohammed Ali4 and Mariam Abbas Ibrahim Abdelghafour*


Background: Proinsulin concentrations are highly related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). This study was carried out to assess serum level of proinsulin among type 2 Sudanese diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: 41 patients with type 2 DM (age mean ± SD: 54.58 ± 11.74 years) (9 Controlled diabetic patients (11.1%) and 32 uncontrolled (39.5%)); (20 males, 21 females) and 40 apparently healthy individuals serves as control group (age mean ± SD: 46.30 ± 15.72 years) (20 males, 20 females) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study which conducted in Khartoum state in the period between March to October 2018. Fasting venous blood was collected from each participant then circulating levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c were measured by fully automated chemistry analyzer (Cobas 311 Roche) and plasma proinsulin level was measured with highly sensitive two-site sandwich ELISA, then the statistical analysis was done by using SPSS computer program. Results: The proinsulin level was significantly increased in cases (mean ± SD: 5.5 ± 9.13 pmol/L) compared to control group (mean ± SD: 1.95 ± 1.78 pmol/L) (P.value = 0.018), no significant difference were found in the proinsulin level in males (mean ± SD: 5.56 ± 11.10 pmol/L) and females (mean ± SD: 5.50 ± 7.03 pmol/L) (P.value = 0.983). Proinsulin level was significantly increased in DM2 patients treated with insulin (6.96 ± 10.53 pmol/L) compared to patients using tabs (mean ± SD: 2.07 ± 1.42 pmol/L) (P.value = 0.020), there was no significant difference between proinsulin level in controlled patients (mean ± SD: 4.80 ± 4.6 pmol/L) and uncontrolled patients (mean ± SD: 5.73 ± 10.08 pmol/L) (P.value = 0.79). There was a moderate positive correlation between HbA1c and FBS among patients (r = 0.70, P = 0.00), but no correlation were found between proinsulin level and FBS (r = -0.169, P = 0.29); proinsulin level and HbA1c (r = 0.096, P = 0.55); proinsulin level and duration of DM (r = 0.020, P = 0.90); and proinsulin level and age of patients (r = -0.008, P = 0.96). Conclusions: Proinsulin level is increased in type 2 DM and has no relation with control of DM and gender.

Keywords: Proinsulin, CVD, Sudanese diabetics, Proinsulin and glycemic control.

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