Muneeb Ahamd Bhat*


Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is defined as the signs and symptoms of neuropathy in a patient with diabetes in whom no other causes of neuropathy are known. DN is one of the commonest causes of peripheral neuropathy. It accounts for more frequent hospitalisations than by other complications of diabetes and also is the most frequent cause of non-traumatic amputation. A simple and internationally agreed definition of DPN is ―the presence of symptoms and/or signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction in people with diabetes after the exclusion of other causes. There are approximately 246 million people worldwide, out of which an estimated 20–30 million people are affected by symptomatic diabetic neuropathy. The prevalence of diabetic neuropathy increases with time and poor glycemic control, and poorly controlled diabetes can lead to severe diabetic polyneuropathy in young adults within a few months after the onset. The conditions predisposing an individual to diabetic neuropathy include hypertension, albuminuria (either microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria), any retinopathy, history of cardiovascular disease, and history of smoking. The risk of developing a disabling peripheral neuropathy could be decreased by optimum glycemic control, but the risk of hypoglycemia increases. Besides, glycemic control, various other treatment options are available to treat patients with NP, such as: opioids, anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, NMDA receptor antagonists, lipoic acid, protein kinase C inhibitors, NSAIDs, ARIs, carnitine and capsaicin.

Keywords: Diabetes, Diabetic Neuropathy, Hyperglycemia, Oxidative stress, Advaced glycation end-products.

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