Abstract
ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF ALYSICARPUS ZEYHERI (HARV), BORRERIA SCABRA AND UAPACA PILOSA (HUTCH) EXTRACTS ON MICE INFECTED WITH PLASMODIUM BERGHEI BERGHEI

*Apampa Sulaiman Ayodeji, Adoum Oumar Al-Moubarak and Fidelis Solomon Ameh

ABSTRACT

The extracts of Alysicarpus zeyheri(Harv) (whole plant), Borreria scabra (whole plant) and Uapaca pilosa(Hutch) (leaves) were evaluated for their anti-malarial properties in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. In vivo curative anti-plasmodial model as well as body temperature and weight changes produced by these extracts were used as parameters for their anti-malarial potential. The phytochemical analyses of the extracts were carried out using standard protocol while the oral acute toxicity was evaluated in mice using Lorke’s method. The curative anti-plasmodial activity was evaluated in mice infected with chloroquine-sensitive strain of P. berghei Berghei using a limit dose of 500 mg/kg for each sample. Weights and temperatures of the mice were measured periodically. The oral median lethal doses of the extracts were estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight each. Of the three extract, B. scabra at 500 mg/kg produced the most significant (p<0.05) curative effect with 73.33% suppression on Day 1 and 100% on Day 4. Chloroquine (5 mg/kg) was more potent than the extracts in the test models. U. pilosa exerts a significant (p>0.05) temperature decrease of infected mice when compared to the negative control from day 1 to day 4. There were no significant changes in temperature by A. zeyheri, B. scabra extracts and chloroquine. No significant changes in body weight were observed at all test drugs when compared to the negative control. The results suggest that extracts of B. scabra showed the most curative anti-plasmodial effect in mice which may be attributed to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids.

Keywords: Anitimalaria, Plasmodium berghei Berghei, Alysicarpus zeyheri, Borreria scabra and Uapaca pilosa extracts.


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