Abstract
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION IN PORT HARCOURT, RIVERS STATE

Ibiju Wariboko*, Uche Uchegbu and Udijih Helen

ABSTRACT

The re-emergence and increase in the prevalence of tuberculosis cases and multidrug resistant strains is of public health concern. The aim of this study was to compare some diagnostic techniques for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. A total of one hundred and eighty-two (182) sputum samples were collected from patients including children, teenagers and adults suspected to be infected with tuberculosis (TB) who were visiting the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Choba. The samples were transported in cold chain with triple packaging system to be processed in a biosafety level two with level three practices laboratory in South-South Tuberculosis Zonal Reference Laboratory in Port Harcourt using Acid Fast Bacilli microscopy, Rapid Diagnostic Technique (RDT) and GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay. Whole Blood samples were also collected from participants for RDT. The present study showed a prevalence of 31.5% MTB positive cases among the studied population using AFB or GeneXpert. Positive MTB with rifampicin resistance was 65% while rifampicin sensitive was 35%. AFB microscopy of 20.3% showed scanty MTB positive (+) while 10.1% were moderately MTB (++) positive and, 1.1% of the tested population showed a heavy MTB (+++) infection. The positive predictive value of Ziehl-Neelsen microscopy from this study stood at 100% as against 8.0% for RDT. The results showed higher TB prevalence in males than in females. Conclusively, GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay is highly sensitive and specific in the detection of MTB and Rifampicin Resistance. The short turnaround time enhance prompt patient management and controls the transmission of the disease. It is therefore recommended that the MTB/RIF assay be emphasized as point of care test over RDT and AFB microscopy.

Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Tuberculosis, GeneXpert, Ziehl-Neelsen Staining and Rapid Diagnostic test.


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