Abstract
GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE

Daniela Nieto Medina and Inês Lopes Cardoso*

ABSTRACT

The goal of this work was to make a search on the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of periodontal disease, in order to have a better understanding and therefore be able to give a better treatment to our patients. One of the most common immune/inflammatory disease of infectious origin is the periodontitis. This disease can have a negative impact in health and life quality, since patients can lose their teeth. Chronic and aggressive periodontal diseases are complex diseases with multifactorial etiology, that result in the destruction of the supporting structures of teeth. The immune system of the host plays an important role in this process. As environmental risk factors are smoking habits, nutrients and food diet, obesity and involved metabolic syndromes, stress and depression. Concerning genetic risk factors, several studies show the existence of familial aggregation and polymorphisms of diverse genes as well as epigenetic changes have been associated with increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

Keywords: Periodontitis; genetic risk factors; environmental risk factors.


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