Abstract
SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA ISOLATES FROM HUMAN ORODENTAL SWABS AT CENTRAL HOSPITAL, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA

Upe Francisca Babaiwa*, Onoriode Oghenevware Ezet, Philip Ugbodaga and John Owodele Akerele

ABSTRACT

Background: Association of oral anaerobes with various life-threatening systemic infections and the increasing resistance of same across the globe poses a great treatment challenge to Physicians; especially in Nigeria where data is limited on their susceptibility. This study evaluates the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria isolates obtained from human orodental diseases; at Central Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. This is with a view to providing baseline data on local susceptibility patterns; a desirable attribute for improving clinical management of oro-dental infections in the study centre. Method: Specimen from sub gingival pockets of extracted teeth were collected with sterile swabs and transported immediately to the laboratory in thioglycollate broth for processing. Standard microbiological methods were used for identification, and antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out on identified isolates using the disk diffusion method as published by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute for anaerobes. Test antimicrobial agents included; metronidazole, clindamycin, perfloxacin and cotrimoxazole. These were selected in line with the treatment guideline in the study centre. Descriptive analyses were performed on the obtained data. Results: Propionibacterium, Prevotella Streptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroides, and Fusobacterium species accounted for 37%, 27%, 27% ,5%, 2%, and (2%) of anaerobic isolates. Approximately 70%, 40%, 25% and 15.3% of these isolates were susceptible to fluoroquinolone, clindamycin, metronidazole and cotrimoxazole respectively. Conlusion: This study has shown that Propionibacterium (37%), Prevotella (27%), and Streptococcus species (27%) are the most prevalent anaerobic bacteria of dental origin in the study centre. It has also shown that metronidazole routinely used in the prophylaxis and treatment of anaerobic oral diseases at the study centre has reduced efficacy, with only 25% of isolates been susceptible to it. Fluoroquinolones and clindamycins being the most efficacious from our data would be recommended as the drug of choice in the routine management of anaerobic oral diseases in the study centre. This would be in conformity with WHO indicator for rational use of antimicrobial therapy.

Keywords: anaerobes, antimicrobial, susceptibility, orodental infections.


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