Saad Sharif, Saif Ur Rehman, Hamna Sharif, Muhammad Qudrat Ullah, Samana Mukhtar, Anosha Anwar, Zahoor Ahmed and Muhammad Irfan Jamil*


Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complication results due to chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes. Globally, Diabetic nephropathy is considered a topmost common cause of ESRD. Aim of the current study is to determine the frequency of Diabetic nephropathy (DN) among Type 2 diabetic patients visiting tertiary care center OPD. It is an observational cross-sectional study done at Diabetic OPD of Mayo Hospital Lahore. In this study, we evaluated 700 diagnosed diabetic patients through random sampling. All the patients were interrogated with the help of a preformed questionnaire. A brief history including sociodemographic details, duration of diabetes and its treatment, family history of Diabetes and kidney disease, Hypertension and Cardiac problems, etc. All necessary laboratory investigations were performed including a lipid profile, serum urea creatinine, urinary albumin levels, serum albumin, complete urine examination, and GFR estimation. Among total 700 patients, 364 (52%) were male and 336 (48%) female with male to female ratio of 1.08:1. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 50-59 years i.e. 252 (35%). Mean age of patients was 50±5.42 years. 378 (54%) and 126 (18%) patients were having associated hypertension and smoking habit respectively. Only 252 (36%) patients were taking the medication with compliance. Educational status of 434 (62%) patients was below secondary education. Mean serum creatinine and HbA1c was 2.29±1.81 and 9.1±2.6% respectively. On fundoscopic examination 217 (31%) patients were having signs of diabetic retinopathy. In treatment plans patients were having oral hypoglycemic 336 (48%), Insulin injection 259 (37%) and combined therapy of 105 (15%). Out of 700 patients, we found that 168 (24%) were having Diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis of patients was showing microalbuminuria in 110 (15.7%) and macroalbuminuria in 58 (8.2%). According to our study, the frequency of DN is very high in patients with type 2 DM especially in 50-59 years of age group. Duration of diabetes increases the risk of nephropathy.

Keywords: Microalbuminuria, HbA1c, diabetes, Serum Creatinine, Diabetic nephropathy, Hypertension, Smoking.

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