Dr. Ayela Qamar, Dr. Omaimah Qamar, Dr. Syed Moeen Riaz and *Dr. Zahoor Ahmed


Objectives: Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a retro virus which has two types HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV attacks helper T-cells of immune system, which is a type of white blood cell. Helper T-cells also known as CD4 cells fight off infections. HIV makes copies in CD4 cells and destroys them. Human beings get this infection through contact with body secretions other patients having HIV. HIV prevalence and incidence is documented in Pakistan as per WHO and annually updated. The purpose of our study is to determine the frequency of HIV and modes of transmission among the patients visiting Jinnah Hospital Lahore. Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted in Jinnah Hospital Lahore and data was taken from the patients who presented to and found HIV positive on rapids diagnostic tests screening with SD bioline, Alere detemine, and UniGold screening kits followed by confirmation of HIV viral load on quantitative PCR. Data was collected from 1st April 2019 to 30th June 2019. Patients were selected by consecutive sampling. Results: There were 190 patients who were tested for HIV in this period and 40 were found positive. There were 176 males and 13 females and 01 transgender. Risk factors were intravenous drug use (IDU) in 20 patients, sexual in 07, blood transfusion and contaminated needles in 02 and unknown in 11. Conclusion: HIV is male predominant disease. Incidence and prevalence is increasing gradually. Most common mode of transmission is IDU followed by unknown and sexual. A large number of patients had unknown source. This indicates need for stopping IDU, sharing needles and risky behaviors should be avoided and safe sex practices should be promoted. Furthermore, we need to look out of the box to find out other modes of transmission.

Keywords: HIV, frequency, mode of transmission, IDU.

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