*Madleen Jawad Sobhe Abu Aser dna Professor Abdalkarim Radwan


Pneumonia is the single leading cause of mortality in children under five and is a major cause of child mortality in every region of the world, with most deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Pneumonia kills more children under five than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined, yet increased attention in recent years have been on the latter diseases. Pneumonia is a form of acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) that affects the lungs. When an individual has pneumonia, the alveoli in the lungs are filled with pus and fluid, which makes breathing painful and limits oxygen intake. Pneumonia has many possible causes, but the most common are bacteria and viruses. The most common pathogens are Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib), and respiratory syncytial virus RSV, the most common cause of viral pneumonia in children under two years. The populations most at risk for pneumonia are children under five years, people aged 65 or over, and people with pre-existing health problems. Streptococcus pneumonia frequently colonizes the upper respiratory tract, Pneumonia is an important clinical and public health problem, Pneumonia is inflammation lower respiratory tract caused by an infection that affects the air sacs in the lungs, The air sacs may fill up with fluids or pus causing symptoms cough, fever chill and trouble breathing. Also Besides it is a common acute disease of the respiratory tract in childhood. It easy to occur in all seasons especially in winter and spring also it easy to recurrent attacks affects the growth and development of the child if the treatment is not completely taken by a patient, it may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi in single or in both lungs. According to recent criteria developed by World Health Organization, the most of the deaths occur from severe pneumonia and management of severe childhood pneumonia requires early identification, prompt referral and the availability of intensive quality of care., Pneumonia potentially fatal infection and inflammation of the lower respiratory tract bronchioles and alveoli usually caused by inhaled bacteria and viruses have both properties Streptococcus pneumonia, pneumococcus. The illness was frequently characterized by high fever, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, sharp chest pain, and a productive cough, a Lake of appetite and fatigue confusion vomiting and Nausea. In this case, we report reviewing the presentation and management of bilateral pneumonia involving the respiratory system. This report aims to alert the clinicians to the potential diagnosis of pneumonia treatment. In this case male 5years old, He diagnosed by bilateral pneumonia with empyema and pleural effusion.

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