Abstract
A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON THE EFFECT OF SCREENING SIGMOIDOSCOPY AND SCREENING COLONOSCOPY ON COLORECTAL CANCER INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY

Casem Ballouk MD*, Elmira Mofid MD, Abdul Majeed Zaki Akkawi MD

ABSTRACT

In the past few decades cancer has plagued the health of many people leading to rise in deaths globally. Colon and rectum cancer rates have increased over the past decade thus raising the need for awareness as well medical research on the best ways to either prevent or control its progression amidst its occurrence. Several tests have been developed to test and screen for colon and rectum cancer and the author is looking to address the benefits of these tests and early detection. Statistics of previous years deaths due to colon and rectum cancer will also be addressed in order to further understand the severity of the health condition thus leading to the populace influence of the dire need of always getting a checkup done. We performed a systematic review which included randomized controlled trials, prospective observational and retrospective studies. The intervention compared was endoscopy vs no screening. There was significant reduction in colorectal and colon cancer in all the studies for those participants who had had screenings before being diagnosed with cancer either screened with colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Significant reduction in the risk of mortality and incidence in cancer if people went for screening was noted. Such research will go a long way in improving the health sector of the countries. In conclusion awareness is now needed and health centers need to find a way of ensuring that screening is crucial especially for patients with high risk of colorectal cancer.

Keywords: Colorectal, Cancer, Colon Rectum, Prevention, Screening sigmoidoscopy, Screening colonoscopy, Cancer incidence, Cancer mortality.


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