Abstract
REVIEW ON EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE: ITS OUTBREAK AND CURRENT STATUS

Swapnil R. Patil*, Sandeep C. Atram, Sayali V. Kathale, Neha A. Khadse

ABSTRACT

Ebola virus, formerly designated Zaire Ebola virus, is one of the five known viruses within the genus Ebola virus which cause disease in humans. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. The natural reservoir of Ebola virus is believed to be bats, particularly fruit bats, and it is primarily transmitted between humans and from animals to humans through body fluids. Ebola is RNA virus that belongs to the family filoviridae, genus Ebola virus. The viruses (EBOV) are enveloped, non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. Ebola virus disease (EVD) was first described in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in 1976. The exact origin, locations and natural reservoir of Ebola virus remain unclear. People can be exposed to Ebola virus from direct contact with the blood and/or secretions of an infected person. Hunting and butchering of wildlife (great apes and fruit bats) has been identified in previous outbreaks as a potential source of infection. The onset of Ebola virus disease is sudden and early symptoms includes; fever and headache, followed by vomiting and diarrhea. Patients in the final stage of disease die in the clinical picture of massive bleeding, severe dehydration, hypovolemic shock and multi-organ failure. Ebola virus infections can be diagnosed by detecting antigens with an antigen capture ELISA and by detecting viral RNA with Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). No specific treatment has been demonstrated yet to be safe and effective for Ebola virus. Standard treatment currently consists of supportive therapy, including maintenance of blood volume and electrolyte balance, as well as standard nursing care. Prevention and control is mainly based on appropriate precautions to break ways of transmission.

Keywords: Ebola virus disease; viral disease pathogenesis; Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever; Prevention; Zoonotic.


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