Sayali V. Kathale*, J.V. Vyas, Neha Khadse1 and Swapnil Patil


Overcrowding and unfavorable environment causes various adverse effects on human and animal health i.e. new vector borne diseases, skin problem like allergy, asthma. Several times many untreatable viral disease becomes a serious death threat in many countries. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and outbreak of NiV infection and to discuss the preventive and control measures across different regions. Nipah virus, a paramyxovirus related to Hendra virus, first emerged in Malaysia in 1998. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis. Malaysia has had no more cases since 1999, but outbreaks continue to occur in Bangladesh and India. The latest outbreak of NiV has been recorded in May, 2018 from Kerala, India which resulted in the death of 17 individuals. Due to lack of vaccines and effective antivirals, Nipah encephalitis poses a great threat to public health. Routine surveillance studies in the infected areas can be useful in detecting early signs of infection and help in containment of these outbreaks. In the Malaysia-Singapore outbreak, transmission occurred primarily through contact with pigs, whereas in Bangladesh and India, it is associated with ingestion of contaminated date palm sap and human-to-human transmission. Bats are the main reservoir for this virus, which can cause disease in humans and animals. There are currently no effective therapeutics, and supportive care and prevention are the mainstays of management. Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging bat-borne pathogen. It was first identified 20 years ago in Malaysia and has since caused outbreaks in other parts of South and Southeast Asia. It causes severe neurological and respiratory disease which is highly lethal. It is highly infectious and spreads in the community through infected animals or other infected people. Different strains of the virus show differing clinical and epidemiological features. Rapid diagnosis and implementation of infection control measures are essential to contain outbreaks. A number of serological and molecular diagnostic techniques have been developed for diagnosis and surveillance. Difficulties in diagnosis and management arise when a new area is affected. The high mortality associated with infection and the possibility of spread to new areas has underscored the need for effective management and control. However, no effective treatment or prophylaxis is readily available, though several approaches show promise. Given the common chains of transmission from bats to humans, a One Health approach is necessary for the prevention and control of NiV infection.

Keywords: Nipah virus disease, viral outbreak, Nipah encephalitis, infectious disease, prevention.

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