Abstract
EFFECTS OF EXTRACTS AND FRACTIONS FROM BRUCEA SUMATRANA ROXB. (SIMAROUBACEAE) LEAVES ON CASTOR OIL AND MAGNESIUM SULPHATE-INDUCED DIARHHEA IN ANIMAL MODEL

Cimanga KR* Tshodi EM, Nsaka LS, Lami NJ, Kambu KO, Vlietinck AJ, Pieters L

ABSTRACT

In the present investigation, from experimental data obtained in castor oil and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhea in Wistar rats, the administration of these two cataractic agents led to the production of copious diarrhea in untreated animals during 4h characterised by a decrease of onset time to 75.2±0.3 and 84.3±0.02 minutes in castor oil and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhea respectively and increase of their all diarrheic parameter levels like wet and hard faeces, and secreted intestinal liquid volume. On the other hand, the administration of lyophilized aqueous extract and its soluble fractions chloroform, ethylacetate, n-butanol and residual aqueous phase as well as 80% methanol and total alkaloids extracts from Brucea sumatrana leaves, in these diarrheic animals, carried significant increase of onset times from 129.3±0.2 to 162.3±0.2 minutes and of 141.1±0.3 to 178.2±0.1 minutes in castor oil and magnesium sulphate test respectively, at the highest oral dose of 200 mg/kg bodyweight. This effect was characterised by significant reduction of all diarrheic parameter levels cited above and finally the reduction of the production of defecation and diarrrhea in treated animals compared to untreated group. Samples of B. sumatrana leaves caused the inhibition production of diarrhea induced by castor oil with percentage inhibitions from 63.3±0.1 to 92.8±0.1% and defecation with 61.0±0.3 to 90.2±0.3% respectively while in magnesium sulphate test, diarrhea and defecation were inhibited by 61.2±0.1 to 90.3±0.2% and 63.1±04 to 85.4±0.2% respectively. At the same oral dose, extracts and fractions from B summatrana leaves caused significant reduction of gastro-intestinal motility of charcoal meals, intestine content, volume and intraluminal fluid accumulation in gastro-intestinal motility test. In castor oil induced enteropooling, they caused significant reduction of the mean weight and mean volume of small intestine content (63.01±0.03 to 84.61±0.02% respectively). In all tests, 80% methanolextract showed high activity compared to lyophilized aqueous, its soluble fractions and total alkaloids extract. Thus, they possess good and interesting antidiarrheic activity in experimental animal model. The use of the plant part to treat diarrhea in traditional medicine seemed to be supported and justified by these reported results in animal model in DR-Congo and other African countries where it is used for the same purpose.

Keywords: Brucea sumatrana, leaves, antidiarrheic activity.


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