Abstract
CHIKUNGUNYA: THE POSITIVE STRANDED RNA VIRUS FROM AEDES SPECIES

Soumitra Ghosh, Arghya Biswas, Soumik Nanda, Sneha Das, *Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen and Dr. Beduin Mahanti

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus, in the family Togaviridae. Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Chikungunya virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus, in the family Togaviridae. The fever is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings (e.g., joint swelling), laboratory testing, and the possibility of exposure to infected mosquitoes. There is no specific treatment for chikungunya fever; care is based on symptoms. Chikungunya infection is not usually fatal. Steps to prevent infection with chikungunya virus include use of insect repellent, protective clothing, and staying in areas with screens. Chikungunya virus was first isolated from the blood of a febrile patient in Tanzania in 1953, and has since been cited as the cause of numerous human epidemics in many areas of Africa and Asia and most recently in limited areas of Europe. Chikungunya virus (CHI-V), a mosquito-borne alphavirus, has become an important re-emerging pathogen with its rapid spread to many non-endemic areas. It is an acute viral disease characterized by fever and painful arthralgia. The arthritic symptoms associated with chikungunya can be debilitating and may persist for months or even years in some patients. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The infection is highly symptomatic, with fever, skin rash and incapacitating arthralgia, which can evolve to chronic arthritis and rheumatism in elderly patients. Chikungunya is endemic throughout Africa, and over the past decade, it has also spread throughout the Indian Ocean, Asia, the South Pacific, southern Europe, the Caribbean and Central America. The rapid emergence of CHIKV has been linked to expansion of the mosquito vector species, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, throughout most tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Furthermore, mutations in some strains of CHIKV have been associated with increased transmissibility of the virus. In, 2006 an estimated 1.38 million people across southern and central India developed symptomatic disease. The disease is self-limiting febrile illness and treatment is symptomatic. As no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available, mosquito controlled by evidence-based intervention is the most appropriate strategy to contain the epidemic for future outbreaks.

Keywords: Alpha virus, Aedes mosquito, Endemic, Nucleocapsid, Genome, Virion, Outbreak, Epidemiology.


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