Abstract
ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF DICHLORVOS CONCENTRATIONS ON CLARIAS GARIEPINUS

Anietie Peter Effiong, Emmanuel Iweh Etim, Stella Folajole Usifoh, Diepreye Ere and Cyril Odianose Usifoh*

ABSTRACT

Environmental hazards pose to fish and other aquatic lives have been associated with 2, 2-dichlorovinyl-dimethyl-phosphate (dichlorvos) toxicity. The aim is to determine the acute and chronic effects of dichlorvos on Clarias gariepinus. Fish samples were inoculated with 4.42, 11.05, 22.10 and 44.20 mg/L for acute studies, also, 2.21 and 3.31 mg/L dichlorvos (DDVP) for chronic studies. Concentration was estimated as a total concentration in the liver, skin, fin and gill of catfish post-fingerlings treated with different concentrations of dichlorvos. Extraction of the pesticide residue was carried out and extracts were cleaned with dichloromethane. Identification of the pesticide was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) in the selected ion monitoring mode. Dichlorvos residues were detected in all cultured fresh post-fingerlings exposed to the pesticide. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for dichlorvos acute toxicity study were found to be 17.378 ± 2.737 and 8.913 ± 2.235 mg/L for the periods of 3 and 4 h respectively while median lethal concentration (LC50) values for dichlorvos chronic toxicity study were found to be 85.114 ± 19.577, 50.119 ± 12.279, 39.811 ± 7.456 and 30.199 ± 4.541 mg/L for the periods of 6, 12, 24, and 36 h respectively. Dichlorvos was found to induce a cumulative sub-lethal and lethal effects in fresh and smoked Clarias gariepinus in aquatic environment and could be useful indicators of fish and aquatic environmental toxicity.

Keywords: Dichlorvos, Pesticides, Clarias gariepinus, GC-MS, Toxicity.


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