Abstract
CYTOKINES, COAGULATION PROFILE AND HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES IN COVID 19 PATIENTS AS INDICATORS OF THEIR HEALTH STAUS: A REVIEW

Obeagu Emmanuel Ifeanyi*, Okorie Hope Mercy, Nnokam Nnekachi Prayer and Okpoli Henry Chijindu

ABSTRACT

Covid 19 has drastically changed approaches to many things ranging from health systems, the economy of the world, the social life, working conditions, education systems, safety and challenged continued existence of mankind in the planet earth. During the incubation period, usually ranging from 1 to 14 days, and during the early phase of the disease, when non-specific symptoms are present, peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte counts are normal or slightly reduced. Following viraemia, SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the tissues expressing high levels of ACE2 including the lungs, heart and gastrointestinal tract. Approximately 7 to 14 days from the onset of the initial symptoms, there is a surge in the clinical manifestations of the disease with a pronounced systemic increase of inflammatory mediators and cytokines, which may even be characterized as a cytokine storm. Lymphopenia is a common finding in patients with COVID-19 infection, and is believed to represent a defective immune response to the virus. The haematological parameters should be monitored carefully to find out if the patients need blood transfusion and the alterations in the coagulation profile and cytokines.

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