Abstract
A DETAILED UPDATED REVIEW ON ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION

Azharruddin Mohammed* and Akthar Sulthana Mohammad

ABSTRACT

Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Evidence suggests that reduction of the blood pressure by 5 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 34%, of ischaemic heart disease by 21%, and reduce the likelihood of dementia, heart failure, and mortality from cardiovascular disease. There are many classes of antihypertensives, which lower blood pressure by different means. Among the most important and most widely used medications are thiazide diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers. Which type of medication to use initially for hypertension has been the subject of several large studies and resulting national guidelines. Established treatment of hypertension is feasible with limited side effects given the supply of multiple antihypertensive classes. Current review describes the varied pharmacological classes of antihypertensive drugs. Major pharmacological classes of antihypertensive drugs are detailed here: beta-blockers, diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and calcium channel blockers etc. Four additional pharmacological classes are described in a shorter manner: renin inhibitors, alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers, centrally acting agents, and direct acting vasodilators.

Keywords: Hypertensive drugs, treatment, cardiovascular diseases, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; Calcium channel blocker; Diuretic.


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