Abstract
PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND OUTCOMES OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN

*Tahsin Abdulateef Hasan and Hussein Hamdan Mukhlif

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory infection is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years in many countries. In this study, we aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors predicting the outcomes of acute respiratory infection (ARI). This is a hospital-based case study conducted at Haditha general hospital/Anbar province / Iraq during the period from December 2017 to December 2019. Children from 2 months to five years of age were presented according to WHO's ALRI criteria and included in the study. The patients were evaluated for risk factors and outcomes. Routine investigations such as CBC, CRP and chest X-ray were done for all cases. The results showed that out of (407) children, only 150 (36.9%) fulfilled the WHO criteria of ARI program, with higher incidence among infants below (6) months (53.3%) and male children (47.3%). The majority of children had anemia (82%), and protein energy malnutrition (PEM) (28.7%). Need to change antibiotics, duration of stay and outcomes were significantly associated with to pneumonia severity (p=0.001, p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively); while need for oxygen therapy was highly significant (p=0.001), and 15% required mechanical ventilation. Lobar pneumonia (32%) was the most commonly observed, and sepsis was the most frequent cause of death and mortality rate 6.0% (n=9). It can be concluded from this study that young age, malnutrition and poor socioeconomic status play an important role in in the morbidity, while effective management of malnutrition, improving the living standards and proper health education programs can reduce mortality from respiratory infection in children, ARI burden and severity.

Keywords: Acute respiratory infection, Children, Outcome, Risk factors.


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