Abstract
HISTOPATHOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF COLONIC MUCOSAL BIOPSY SPECIMENS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

Dr. Nazia Aslam Hungund* and Dr. Thejasvi Krishnamurthy

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Colonoscopy with biopsy is the diagnostic tool of choice in evaluating patients with colorectal pathologies. Biopsies help in diagnosing neoplastic lesions, assessing prognosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), exploring changes in bowel habits, evaluating symptoms of pain, bleeding, weight loss, chronic constipation and diarrhea. Objectives: To study the histomorphological spectrum of colonoscopic biopsies. To correlate them with clinical presentation and colonoscopic diagnosis. Methods: This retrospective study includes all colonoscopic biopsies received in the Department of Pathology, KIMS Bengaluru from January 2017 to January 2020. All biopsies were processed routinely and studied. Results: Out of 114 biopsies, 98 were non neoplastic and 16 neoplastic. The most common presenting complaint for neoplastic lesions was per rectal bleeding, and pain abdomen for non-neoplastic lesions. Non-specific colitis (38.78%) was the commonest non neoplastic lesion, followed by ulcerative colitis (27.55%), ulcers (7.14%), granulomatous inflammation (7.14%). Males (67.34%) showed a higher preponderance than females (32.66%). Among neoplastic lesions, benign lesions accounted for 25% of the total neoplastic cases and 75% composed malignant lesions; adenocarcinoma being the most common entity. Neoplastic lesions showed equal distribution in males and females. Conclusion: Histopathological interpretation on colonic biopsies is a cornerstone in diagnosing and managing patients with colonic lesions. Colonoscopic diagnosis correlated well with histopathology in carcinomas and granulomatous lesions. IBD showed a sensitivity of 93.75% and a specificity of 78.2 %. Mucosal biopsies should be a part of evaluation of patients with recurrent abdominal pain and bleeding per rectum, even if colonoscopy is normal.

Keywords: Colonoscopy, Biopsy, Histopathology.


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