Abstract
SPREADING BACTERIA AND RESISTANCE FROM FARMS INTO HUMAN COMMUNITY: A GLANCE ON THE ROLE OF POULTRIES’ FARMING IN SOUTH CAMEROON

Pierre René Fotsing Kwetche*, Pascal Blaise Well à Well à Koul, Christelle Domngang Noche, Arlette Kengne, Blandine Pulcherie Tamatcho Kweyang, Serge Honoré Tchoukoua, O’Neal Dorsel Youté, William Lelorel Nankam Nguekap, Anselme Michel Yawat Djogang, Valer Igor Deumi Monthé, Vanessa Lontsi Ngoda, Peguy Martial Mbianda Tchuessi and Jean Michel Tekam

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance has become a major global health concern for its alarming growth which couples with emergence of life-threatening microbial conditions requiring antimicrobial agents for their control. The present work conducted in southern Cameroon focused on antibacterial agents used in poultry farms, the susceptibility profiles of isolates from these farms and their connections with findings in the neighboring human community’s bacterial populations. Each participant signed an informed consent prior to questionnaire filling and specimen collection. Specimen collection was conducted by fingerprinting in farmers and in community members. Isolation, identification and susceptibility tests were carried out according to standard guidelines (REMIC 2018 and CA-SFM 2019). Data analysis revealed that most common antibacterial agents used in the farms belonged to the groups of beta-lactams (40%) and quinolones (20%). In addition, all farm respondents were aware of the role that antimicrobial agents could play in infection control, acknowledged that their misuse could reduce their effectiveness; but could not state any connection with human health. A total of 342 bacterial isolates were recovered from 250 specimens (154 from farms and 188 from the neighboring community). Most common isolates were members of the Staphylococcaceae family and more precisely, from the genus Staphylococcus (49% from farms and 81% from surrounding populations), followed by Enterobacteriaceae (42% from farms and 19% from surrounding populations). Invariably, highest resistance rates were recorded with common drugs: Co-trimoxazole, Ceftazidime, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid (100%, each), Ceftriaxone (90%) and Tetracycline (88%). Combined data analysis further highlighted putative germs communication from farms into the neighborhood, favored by the low hygiene standards that obviously facilitated the spread of resistant bacteria from the farms into the human communities (primarily Gram-positive’s), and misuse of engines for resistance selections. Collectively, these findings stressed urgent needs for better farm management with refreshed human resources.

Keywords: Bacteria susceptibility profile, spread, farm, Human community.


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