*Dr. Mandaloju Venkateshwarlu, M.Sc., Ph.D., (Botany) M.Sc (Bio-tech), FSAB, FHAS


The book is written in simple language so that the students can easily grasp the matter. Some important terms has been incorporated. So that the students may search the useful related for competitive examinations. In the recent years included in the syllabus of almost all Indian Universities in various subjects of Biology or Life Sciences as an independent evergreen subject. Exponential growth in many areas of basic fundamentals made it necessary in some cases to write several chapters on the same topic which was covered in a single chapter in the earlier book. Similarly, in the present volume, separate new chapters have been written on topics which in the earlier title either did not figure at all or were each covered very briefly as a part of a chapter. In the present book, for instance in separate chapters have been written on new topics. The students of Biology at the post graduate (P.G.) under graduate (U.G.) levels needed to the recent Global changes and developments. Several of my students in the laboratory helped me either in writing some of the chapters or in preparing the list of references and appendix given at the end of this volume. There may also be errors and omissions of technical nature, since in a vast and fast expanding subject like Botany Biotechnology; one cannot claim to have known everything, despite his best efforts. I am thankful to Department Head, BOS, Staff and Research Scholars (Botany) my family members, inspiration and cooperation my wife and children’s (M. Hamsini) Teachers, Friends, Students and Well-Wishers (Dursheti Sai Charan, M.B.A., Certified Microsoft Office and Windows Specialist). I hope that this book will be useful to students in Life Sciences.

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