Prof. Krishnajyoti Goswami* and Prof. Ipsita Mazumdar


Toys, an integral part of a child’s developmental process, are usually made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and metals in which lead (Pb) compounds are the most common stabiliser. In paints in toy’s materials these stabilisers are loosely bound to the surface and can be easily leached. Chewing, licking and swallowing of such is a common source of Pb exposure from toys. The toy’s market in Kolkata, India, is flooded with non-branded PVC and metal toys. The aim of this study is to assess their Pb levels. A total of thirty-six plastic toys from Kolkata, India, were estimated for Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy with Zeeman background correction. All samples analysed contained Pb, in significantly much higher concentration compared to Indian Standard Safety Requirements, with a national average (112.51 ppm}, as well as European Standards. which is 90 ppm in painted toys. Periodic market surveillance by regulatory agencies is advisable to control this health hazard.

Keywords: Lead, Toy, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, Polyvinyl chloride, Paint.

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