Abstract
INNATE IMMUNE MODULATION AND RESISTANCE TO COVID-19

Ravikumar C. Kanani, Sivapriva J. Geetha, Sanjay Patel Bakulesh Khamar*, Alexander T. Honkala, Sanjay V. Malhotra*

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity is a fast, first-line defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune responses are responsible for initial defense against novel pathogens like COVID-19 and do not need the prior exposure required for adaptive immune responses. Innate immune cells such as macrophages and natural killer (NK)-cells detect pathogens entering body by recognising conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and mount rapid responses to contain infection. [1] Th1 responses and IFN-γ secretion by macrophages and NK cells following PAMP detection are critical for anti-viral immunity. [2] IFN-γ is known to provide resistance to infection by coronavirus and its deficiency is associated with susceptibility to coronavirus.[3] IFN-γ also reduces the expression of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, which is essential for the entry of coronavirus into the cell.[4]

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