Abstract
NEURODEGENERATION DUE TO INSULIN RESISTANCE IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

Nallala Varalakshmi*, Yatham Ramya, Purushothama Reddy K.* and Kantamaneni Padmalatha

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which there will be decrease in the memory and cognition impairment. This was 1st described by in 1906. The name Alzheimer’s disease is coined by after the name of the scientist Dr. Alois Alzheimer. AD is characterised by the accumulation of Amyloid beta peptides (Aβ) plaques extracellularly and there will be intracellular aggregation of Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFTS). NFTS are formed due to tau protein hyperphosphorylation. This accumulation of NFTS and plaques leads to necrosis of the brain tissue. There is growing evidence that interlink between Diabetes Mellitus type II (DM type II) and AD. There is almost doubled risk of AD for the patients with type II DM insulin resistance in DM type II is the underlying mechanism for the occurrence of AD in type II DM patients. Insulin is helpful for the dendritic sprouting, cell repair and growth. Hence insulin helps in maintaining the healthy neuronal tissue. With the insulin resistance there will be inhibition of the insulin degrading enzyme. This enzyme is useful for the degradation of the insulin as well as Aβs in the brain tissue. As insulin degrading enzyme is inhibited there will be amyloid beta cells in the brain tissue, which ultimately leads to damage of the brain tissue.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), Amyloid beta peptides (A?) plaques, Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTS), Intranasal (NAS) insulin and Diabetes Mellitus type II.


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