Abstract
TMPRSS2 AND CD147: NOVEL THERAPEUTIC TARGET FOR THE PREVENTION OF SARS-COV-2 INVASION INTO HOST CELLS

Parthiba Pramanik and Purushottam Pramanik*

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID 19) is a serious concern for public health. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This viral infection which causes severe respiratory distress syndrome was declared as a pandemic on 11th March, 2020. More than 250 countries of the world now suffer in COVID-19. At present more than 171 million confirmed cases and more than 3.6 million people were died in COVID-19 worldwide. It is characterised by acute respiratory distress, pneumonia and multi-organ failure. Viral entry into cells is a major target for host immune surveillance and human intervention strategies. SARS-CoV-2 binds with membrane bound Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) via its spike protein and gain entry to host cell. ACE2 widely distributed in various tissues and acts as primary receptor for SARS-CoV-2. CD147 acts as second receptor particularly in target immune cells of SARS-CoV-2 which is lack of ACE2. Viral entry via surface receptor recognition and membrane fusion is the most potent route of viral entry. Trans-membrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) that cleaves SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 facilitates viral entry by membrane fusion. Thus ACE2, CD147 and TMPRSS2 are three major players in pathogenesis of COVID 19. Blocking of host cell receptor and or inhibition of protease could be a therapeutic approach against SARS-CoV-2 infection. ACE2 provides protection against acute cardiovascular and lung injury and protection against disseminated intravascular coagulation caused by COVID-19. Thus treatment with blocking ACE2 probably has a negative impact. CD147, is a target for COVID-19 treatment as CD147 antibodies efficiently improve the recovery from COVID-19. TMPRSS2 inhibitor block viral entry into host cells. Thus prevention of SARS-CoV-2 entry by using TMPRSS2 blocker would be beneficial against COVID-19.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ACE2, CD147, TMPRSS2, Spike protein.


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