S. Anto, K. Sudharshini, D. Saravanan* and R. Selvaraj


Endophytes are endosymbionts residing in the internal tissues of host plants without causing any apparent damage or harm to the host. The need for novel chemical compounds to treat human diseases is ever increasing. The rapid development of drug-resistant microbes, the discovery of new cases of life-threatening infections, and the constant recurrence of diseases have pushed for advances in the field of drug discovery. The study analyses the bioprospecting of endophytic bacteria from Ficus hispida plant leaves. In this study totally 16 morphologically different endophytic bacteria were isolated and screened for bioactivity, enzymatic activity, dye degradation and plant growth promoting substances. Four strains showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against test pathogens. In enzyme screening activity all the 16 strains produce any one of the enzyme. In degradation studies the maximum of 11 isolates degrade crystal violet, 9 isolates degrade malachite green, 7 strains degrade methylene blue and 5 strains degrade phenol. Four plant growth substances (acetoin, phosphatase, ammonia, indole acetic acid) are produced by endophytic bacteria isolates. These studies also studied for antibiotic susceptibility and salt tolerance of endophytic bacterial isolates for presence of antibiotic resistant genes and for withstand salt tolerance of isolated strains. This study demonstrates the occurrence of culturable bacterial endophytes in the plant under study. The presence of bacterial endophytes in the leaf tissues has uncovered a new arena which remains largely unexploited in the bioprospecting point of view. The present study concludes that endophytic bacteria isolated from Ficus hispida plant were potential for pharmaceutical environmental application.

Keywords: Endophytes, Bioactivity, Enzyme, Degradation and Plant growth substance.

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