Abstract
USE OF INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS FOR HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS TREATMENT

Pamela Ceciliano-Porras, María Paula Ching-González, Pablo Hidalgo-Villegas, Génesis Ramírez-Ramírez, Daniela Villalobos-Herrera, Juan José Mora-Román*

ABSTRACT

HIV is a retrovirus that mainly infects helper T lymphocytes. This pathogen causes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), affecting approximately 36.9 million people worldwide. AIDS is characterized by a quantitative and qualitative decrease in these cell counts. The pharmacological treatment is a combination of antiretrovirals that are administered for life. Due to the large number of people infected with this pathogen, finding a cure has become a public health goal. In 2007, the recovery of an HIV-positive patient was confirmed by transplanting hematopoietic stem cells with a mutation in the CCR5 coreceptor, providing infection resistance. Search for techniques that managed to inhibit or eliminate the CCR5 expression through gene silencing began. Induced pluripotent stem cells or iPSCs were produced in vitro after nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells by expressing transcription factors such as OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC, allow genetic modifications to be made so that HIV-resistant cells are obtained. Although this therapy is a promising alternative to treat and cure this illness, there are currently no clinical studies using genetically modified iPSCs to ensure their safety and effectiveness.HIV is a retrovirus that mainly infects helper T lymphocytes. This pathogen causes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), affecting approximately 36.9 million people worldwide. AIDS is characterized by a quantitative and qualitative decrease in these cell counts. The pharmacological treatment is a combination of antiretrovirals that are administered for life. Due to the large number of people infected with this pathogen, finding a cure has become a public health goal. In 2007, the recovery of an HIV-positive patient was confirmed by transplanting hematopoietic stem cells with a mutation in the CCR5 coreceptor, providing infection resistance. Search for techniques that managed to inhibit or eliminate the CCR5 expression through gene silencing began. Induced pluripotent stem cells or iPSCs were produced in vitro after nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells by expressing transcription factors such as OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC, allow genetic modifications to be made so that HIV-resistant cells are obtained. Although this therapy is a promising alternative to treat and cure this illness, there are currently no clinical studies using genetically modified iPSCs to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, helper T lymphocytes, drug therapy, induced pluripotent stem cells.


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