Abstract
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE: A REVIEW

Prashant Gupta*, Aditya Gupta and Shreya Singh

ABSTRACT

In this article we discuss about concise review of the pathophysiology, risk factor, sign and symptoms, consequences, diagnosis and treatment. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication of sepsis in critically ill patients, and required renal replacement therapy. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has common problems of acute kidney injury and long-term renal dysfunction and they are highly related to mortality. Hyperkalemia is associated with increased risk of death. Multiple myeloma light chains are also directly toxic on proximal renal tubules, renal dysfunction. Cardiorenal syndromes are classified into 5 subtypes: CRS type 1(acute CRS), CRS type 2(chronic CRS), CRS type 3(acute Reno cardiac syndrome), CRS type 4(chronic reno cardiac syndrome), CRS type 5(secondary CRS). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines as an abnormality in kidney function or structure that is present for greater than 3 months. Chronic kidney disease has become a worldwide epidemic; kidney plays a very important role in the regulation of electrolyte and acid-base balance. Pregnancy associated risks increase along with the stage of CKD.

Keywords: Hyperkalemia is associated with increased risk of death.


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