Abstract
EVALUATION, ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIULCER PRINCIPLE(S) OF ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF PIPER GUINEENSE ON INDOMETHACIN-INDUCED ULCER IN WISTAR RATS

Tharcitus Chilaka Onwudiwe*, Prince Chiazor Unekwe, Kingsley Chimsorom Chilaka, Ilo Cajetan Elochukwu and Peter Olisa Ughachukwu

ABSTRACT

Peptic ulcer disease is a serious health challenge in the world. Synthetic drugs employed for treatment of the disease confer side effects and treatment relapse. Alternative therapies from plants are receiving a tremendous attention. Piper guineense, an African plant, is claimed by tradomedicine as a remedy for ulcer. However, the active principles responsible for bioactivities of many African plants have not been characterized, and this is the case for Piper guineense. The aim of this study was to evaluate, isolate and characterize the antiulcer principles of ethanol leaf extracts of Piper guineense on indomethacin-induced ulcer in wistar rats. This was done by extraction and fractionation of the plant material that yielded five pooled-fractions, labeled PF-1 to PF-5. Ethanol extract (EE) and fraction extracts were orally administered at 400mg/kg to six test groups of adult wistar rats. The positive and negative control groups were respectively administered with 100mg/kg cimetidine and 5ml/kg Tween 80 orally. Animals were sacrificed under anesthesia. Assessment of antiulcer activity identified PF-4 as the most bioactive extract, having produced the highest ulcer inhibition of 33.65%. Further purification of PF-4 by preparative thin-layer chromatography yielded three sub-pooled fractions (SPF-4:1, SPF-4:2, SPF-4:3), with SPF-4:2 identified as the most bioactive sub-pooled fraction, having produced the highest ulcer inhibition of 44.28%. Characterization of SPF-4:2 by GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of 9,12,Octadecanoic acid methylester and Piperine. This study therefore concludes that these compounds are responsible for antiulcer activity of Piper guineense leaf.

Keywords: Extraction, Fractionation, Bioactive principles, GC-MS analysis.


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