A. Shashi* and Manisha Tikka


The present study focused on the efficacy of Curcumin on biochemical and pathological alterations in adrenal gland of rat exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF). Thirty six Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into six groups. Each group consisted of six rats. The group I served as control and given 1 mL of of deionized water/kg b.w./day orally by oral gavage for 40 days. The groups II and III were treated with 300 and 600 mg of NaF/kg b.w./day for the same period respectively. The group IV was administered with 200 mg/kg b.w./day of Curcumin only for 20 days. The groups V and VI were firstly given 300 and 600 mg of NaF/kg b.w./day respectively for 40 days followed by 200 mg/kg b.w./day of Curcumin for next 20 days. After the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed, adrenal tissue was taken out, weighed, and processed for biochemical and histopathological analysis. The activity of acetylcholinesterase and cholesterol was determined. The activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme significantly (P<0.0001) declined while the amount of cholesterol significantly (P<0.0001) elevated in adrenal tissue of rat after 40 days of fluoride treatment. Pearson’s bivariate correlation and simple linear regression analysis showed significant (P<0.0001) negative correlation was observed between the level of adrenal fluoride and activity of acetylcholinesterase (Pearson r =-0.955, R2 = 0.913, Y = 11.237-3.108X) while positive correlation between the levels of tissue fluoride and cholesterol ((Pearson r = 0.954, R2 = 0.910, Y = 10.497+7.851X). The pathological examination of adrenal gland demonstrated disorganization of cells in zona glomerulosa (ZG), zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR). The cytoplasmic vacuolization, karyolytic nuclei, swollen cells, single cell necrosis, apoptosis, accumulation of lipid droplets and dilation of blood capillaries were prominent in adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla showed hypertrophied cells, interstitial fibrosis, and damaged and shrunken chromaffin cells. However, Curcumin administration restored most of the changes caused by sodium fluoride.

Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Adrenal gland, Cholesterol, Curcumin, Fluorosis, Histopathology.

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