Abstract
EFFECTS OF EXTRACTS, FRACTIONS AND POLYSACCHARIDES FROM BRUCEA SUMATRANA ROXB. (SIMAROUBACEAE) LEAVES ON STREPTOZOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

Tshodi Ehata M., Nsaka Lumpu S., Lami Nzunzu J., Cimanga Kanyanga R.*, Vlietinck A. J. and Pieters L.

ABSTRACT

This study described for the first time the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities of aqueous extract and its soluble fractions, that of 80% methanol extract and polysaccahrides as well as the antihypergglycemic activity of aqueous extact from Brucea sumatrana leaves collected in Mai-Ndombe in Democratic republic of Congo. In hypoglycemic assay, results indicated that the glucose level of untreated normoglycemic rats was 88.0±0. mg/dl after 180 minutes of observation. Next, the treatment of these normoglycemic rats with Glibeclamide at oral dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (bw), caused significant decrease blood glucose level (BGL) of treated normoglycemic to value of 77.6±0.3 mg at the same time. In the same manner, the administration of aqueous and 80% methanol extracts at the highest oral dose of 400 mg/kg bw, also caused marked reduction of treated BGL at 80.0±0.3 and 78.5±0.1 mg after 180 min. Soluble fractions chloroform, ethylacetate, n-butanol and residual phase as well as polysaccharides acted the same manner by reducing treated normoglycemic BGL to values ranging from to 77.8±0.3 and 79.3±0.3 mg/dl, and 78.2±0.2 to 81.0±0.3 mg/dl after 180 min. In antidiabetic test carried out for 180 min of observation, untreated diabetic rats showed a glycemia value reaching high value of 237.3±0.3 mg/dl after 180 min. After the treatment of these diabetic rats with Glibenclamide at oral dose of 2.5 mg bw, this compound provoked marked reduction of treated diabetic rats to value 96.8±0.2 mg/dl. The same effect was also observed with the administration of aqueous and 80% methanol extracts at the highest oral dose of 400 mg/kg bw which reached the value of treated diabetic rats to values of 127.2.±0.2 and 120.0±0.3 mg/dl compared to untreated diabetic rats with glycemia of 237.3±0.3 mg/dl. Soluble fractions chloroform ethylacateate, n-butanol and residual phase displayed also the same effect by causing reduction of treated diabetic glymia to values ranging from 134.8±0.1 and 141.8±0.3 mg/dl after 180 min while polysaccharide brought about this glycemia of treated diabetic rats to values between 130.3±0.1 to 140.3±0.2 at the same time of observation. The obtained results at thisperiod of 180 min, indicated that the glycemia values of treated diabetic rats remained high and need new treatment. With this instituted treatment, it was observed that the administration of Glibenclamide to the same oral dose of 2.5 mg/kg bw caused marked diminishing of treated diabetic glycemia to value of 98.8±0.2 mg/dl on Day-21 and continue to dercease very significatntly to low value of 84.8±0.2 on Day-30. The same results were also obtained with the administration of aqueous and 80% methanol extracts reducing very significantly the treated diabetic glycemia to values of 88.5±0.3 and 86.3±0.3 mg/dl. on Days-21 and -28 respectively. Soluble fractions and polysaccharides produced also the same effect in bringing back the treated diabetic glycemia value to values from 132.2±0.3 and 152.3±0.1, and 91.9±0.4 to 97.5±0.4 mg/ml, and 107.6±0.2 and 132.6±90.6±0.1 to 97.3±0.2 mg/dl on Days-7 and -21 and known continual decrease until to values ranging from 90.9±.4 and 97.5±0.4 mg/dl, and 83.7±0.1 and 87.6±0.3 mg/dl respectively on Day-28. These results clearly showed that Glibenclamide, both aqueous and 80% methanol extracts, soluble fractions and polysaccharides exhibited and possessed interesting hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties. In addition, Glibenclamide and aqueous extract were found to exhihibit antihyperglycemic activity by reducing the treated hyperglycemic BGL to low level of 83.7±0.1 and 87.6±0.3 mg/dl compared to untreated hyperglycemic normoglycenic rat presenting BGL of 166.0±0.0 mg/dl.

Keywords: Brucea sumatrana, ethylacateate, n-butanol.


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