Abstract
THE NEXUS BETWEEN CEPHALIC INDEX AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A STUDY OF SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS PUPILS IN MAKURDI

Ude RA, Nwonu CN*, Ukwa JA, Uloneme GC and Saalu LC

ABSTRACT

The academic performance of students at all levels of education can be affected by several factors. This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between the cephalic index (CI) and the academic performance of primary school pupils in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria, with a view to providing reference data for craniometric parameters of the groups studied; and to determine the predominant anatomy head form. Four hundred questionnaires (400) were distributed to subjects and cephalic measurement (length and breadth) of all four hundred subjects were taken using a sliding vanier caliper. CI was calculated and the academic performances (APs) of the pupils were collected from the school records through the questionnaires distributed. Data collected were analysed using SPSS (version 22.0). Data were expressed using descriptive statistics, such as means and percentages. The inferential statistical technique, Pearson Chi-square test was used to assess the degree of association to determine the relationship between the CI and APs of the subjects. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results showed that the mean head length and breadth for males and females were (16.14±0.74, 16.6 ±0.21) and (13.33±0.44, 13.51±0.19. The mean CIs were 82.34±1.30 and 81.62±2.06 for males and females respectively. Sex differences were observed to exist between male and female participants with respect to CI. Mesocephalic was the predominant head form with 64.3 %. Pearson chi-square correlation test showed no relationships between CI and AP of primary school pupils in Benue State (p = 0.209. p > 0.05), and as such, it is statistically not significant.

Keywords: Head forms, head length, head breadth, sex differences, mesocephalic, participants.


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