Chidinma Amuneke*, Joy Anuforo, Prisca Sam-Duru, Assumpta Nwadike and Blessing Emmanuel


Near exophoria occurs when the position of the lines of sight either diverge at near or converge to a point further away than the near point. Large degrees of near exophoria (≥6Δ) contribute immensely to the visual problems affecting students. This study traced the distribution of near exophoria among students of Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri. 306 students (131 males and 175 females) aged between 16 to 27 years were selected randomly from the different faculties that make up the Institution. Their heterophoria states were ascertained and measured with the Maddox rod. The data collected were classified into three near phoria states: exophoria, esophoria and orthophoria. The data were analysed using frequencies, percentages and represented on bar charts. The study revealed that exophoria was the most prevalent (60.4%) phoria at near. It was found that near exophoria increased with increasing age among the students while statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant relationship between near exophoria and gender among the students. It was observed that, out of the 152 students who had large phoria measurements equal to or more than six prism dioptres (≥6 p.d), 111 (73%) of them were symptomatic. Only 30 (27%) out of these symptomatic students had corrective spectacles. It is therefore recommended that Government sponsors visual screening programmes of tertiary students to detect the cases of phoria and/or other vision problems that may have an impact on their academic performance and daily living, and as such treatment administered promptly.

Keywords: Esophoria, Exophoria, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Heterophoria, Maddox rod, Vision problem.

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