Abstract
AMELIORATIVE TENDENCY INHERENT IN SUB-CHRONIC CAFFEINE INGESTION ON PAIN HYPERSENSITIVITY AND BRAIN’S OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS’ PROFILE IN WISTAR RATS

*Olorunfemi O. J., Okoseimiema S.C. and Azibalua A. A.

ABSTRACT

Sensitivity to mechanical pain in animal could be heightened due to certain factors (chemical or physical) and this could induce myriads of chemical and molecular assaults in the system such as disruption in oxidative stress markers profile and moieties. The present study was therefore, designed to investigate the effects of sub-chronic caffeine ingestion on pain hypersensitivity and oxidative stress markers in wistar rats. To achieve this aim, twenty-five wistar rats with an average weight of 120g were sorted into five groups via; control (group 1) treated with distilled water only, group 2, 3 and 4 treated with caffeine at doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks respectively. In addition, epinephrine drug was used as a positive administration as compared to the negative control. Effects of caffeine on episodic memory and pain hypersensitivity were measured using the Passive Avoidance Box test and the Analgesy-meter. Advanced Oxidative Protein Products (AOPP) and other stress markers such as Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide dismutase Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione Reductase (GHS) Levels were quantified and assayed. Data were obtained and analyzed using standard statistical tools. Results shows that caffeine at sub-chronic administration significantly increased (p≥ 0.05) pain hypersensitivity in the passive avoidance test, at 50 and 100 mg/kg, and 150mg/kg dose concentrations when compared to the control groups thereby declining pain threshold and promoting exaggeration to sensation response. Step-through latency was seen to be decreased (p≤ 0.05) in similar fashion from low to high dose concentration leading to more time spent without in intact memory recall phase. Administration of sub-chronic caffeine significantly (p≤ 0.05) increased AOPP at 100 and 150mg/kg dose concentrations, while Catalase and Glutathione were decreased considerably leading to a significant protein breakdown and mild peroxidation by Caffeine at the end of the study, the levels of SOD was increased alongside the pro-oxidant Malondialdeyde (MDA) further suggesting a significant stressful state. In conclusion, there was significant increase in AOPP levels and other pro-oxidative stress markers compared to the control corroborating the scenario of stress. The data obtained from this study indicated that Caffeine a common psychoactive drug increases pain hypersensitivity upon chronic administration, however it can be used as an adjuvant pain analgestic agent in its therapeutic low dose. It also indicates that upon chronic administration of caffeine, homeostasis is altered in the face of cellular assault and challenge to cellular integrity.

Keywords: Caffeine, wistar rats, pain, catalase, Superoxide Dismutase, Malondialdehyde.


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