Y. K. Lahir*


Cells are mostly fixed and well-set to constitute an organ among multicellular biosystems. Red blood cells, leukocytes, lymphocytes, and fibroblast, are free to move from one location to other to meet emergencies, like, transportation, microbial invasion, immune interactions, eliminating toxic and unwanted metabolites. These cells exhibit cellular topography that facilitates such functions. The cellular topography plays structural and functional roles during fertilization, development (embryonic and growth), cell migration, intercellular signaling, repairing of wounds, metastasis, invasive movements of cancer along with aligned fine layers of collagen (Walter and Israel, 1987, Curtis and Clark, 1990, Harrison 2011, Lahir, 2021). The cell membrane has been the target of investigation from the beginning of cytological studies. It is one of the most functional complex cell components and needs more consideration. The morphological folded appearance and other topographic features of cell membrane are mostly ignored but are of functional significant (Ingela and Onfelt, 2013). Cell membrane is non-elastic in their lateral plane, but it exhibits ability to stretch without any rupture. The membrane is able to form endocytic vesicles, blebs, protrusions, and ruffles, accommodate the changes in shape during migration, spreading, cell proliferation, formation of filopodia, pseudopodia, lamellipodium, and formation of immunological synapses involving B- or T-cells and NK-cells. There are frequent movements of cell surface receptors, signaling molecules, vesicles, curvature induced lipid rafts (Nichol and Hutter, 1996, Boucrot and Kirchhausen, 2007, Gauthier et al., 2009, Lahir and Chitre, 2021, Lahir et al., 2021).

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